Proposed Lab Experiment V. Effect of different compounds on bee mortality and parasite levels

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Honeybee guts 1000x Small divisions are 1 um.
Insect wing scale

Feed groups of bees stressors, nutrients or treatments and measure mortality rates and parasite loads.

  1. Crithidia mellificae
  2. Nosema ceranae


Ingemar Fries, Marie-Pierre Chauzat, Yan-Ping Chen, Vincent Doublet, Elke Genersch, Sebastian Gisder, Mariano Higes, Dino P McMahon, Raquel Mart ín-Hernández, Myrsini Natsopoulou, Robert J Paxton, Gina Tanner, Thomas C Webster & Geoffrey R Williams (2013) Standard methods for Nosema research, Journal of Apicultural Research, 52:1, 1-28, DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.

Chen Y1, Evans JD, Smith IB, Pettis JS.

Dong-Jun Kim, Hwi-Geon Yun, In-Hui Kim, Won-Seok Gwak, and Soo-Dong Woo Efficient Method for the Rapid Purification of Nosema ceranae Spores

Eric C. Mussen, Extension Apiculturist, UC Davis (March 11, 2011) Diagnosing and Treating Nosema Disease

Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

rust fungi spores

A Brazilian Social Bee Must Cultivate Fungus to Survive

Texas Apiary Inspection Service




Toluidine Blue O